Farmacoterapéutica de la anticoagulación. Revisión de la literatura

Andrés Felipe Posada-López, Julio César García C.,, Tatiana Pacheco P., Sara Arias V.

Resumen


La terapia anticoagulante tiene múltiples indicaciones en diversos contextos; va más allá de la prevención de la formación de trombos o su propagación y tiene como objetivo final mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes. En efecto, la anticoagulación se hace relevante en diversas situaciones clínicas que abarcan desde enfermedades crónicas hasta patologías quirúrgicas y situaciones especiales (obesidad, enfermedad renal crónica, trauma, cáncer) para evitar desenlaces adversos, tales como el tromboembolismo venoso, los estados hipercoagulables, el síndrome coronario agudo, la fibrilación y el aleteo (flutter) auricular, entre otros. En este sentido, la comprensión adecuada y la formulación de dosis óptimas de anticoagulantes recobran especial importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la evidencia proveniente de estudios clínicos sobre el papel de los principales anticoagulantes orales y parenterales en el contexto de los pacientes con indicación de anticoagulación por antecedentes patológicos, quirúrgicos y en situaciones especiales como las mencionadas. Existen diversos conceptos y recomendaciones sobre la profilaxis y el tratamiento anticoagulante en indicaciones habituales; sin embargo, se debe establecer un consenso de anticoagulación en situaciones especiales que se presentan en la práctica clínica diaria.

 


Palabras clave


Coagulación; Anticoagulantes; Agregación plaquetaria; Warfarina; Heparina; Heparina de bajo peso molecular; Terapéutica

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18270/rce.v14i.2029

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Rev. Colomb. Enferm. • ISSN: 1909-1621 (Impresa) • ISSN: 2346-2000 (En línea)