Corrupción y normas sociales


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Palabras clave

Corrupción; normas sociales; mecanismos; disonancia moral

Cómo citar

Senci, C., & Hasrun, H. (2020). Corrupción y normas sociales. Revista Colombiana De Filosofía De La Ciencia, 19(39), 221-261. https://doi.org/10.18270/rcfc.v19i39.2819

Resumen

Este artículo tiene tres partes: en primer lugar, vamos a argumentar que la teoría de normas sociales es relevante para el estudio de la corrupción. Ello es así porque la corrupción es un fenómeno que se da en un contexto concreto, en el interior de un sistema normativo determinado, que permite definir ciertas interacciones como “corruptas”. En segundo, vamos a mostrar que la teoría de Coleman sobre las normas sociales adolece de un déficit teórico, ya que no admite ciertas sutilezas en la explicación de la transición de lo macro a lo micro (esto es, cómo los fenómenos macrosociales influyen en los individuos). A partir del esquema de Coleman sobre los niveles de interacción social, señalamos una asimetría no teorizada por el autor entre los mecanismos del paso de lo micro a lo macro, que generan un nivel macro que resulta objetivo o, al menos, común para muchos, y los mecanismos de lo macro a lo micro, que parten de un nivel macro que no necesariamente es percibido del mismo modo por los individuos, sino que está mediado por sus creencias sobre la sociedad; y esto es más notorio cuando se trata de un fenómeno como la corrupción, en el que hay fuertes incentivos para el secretismo, por lo que no es posible afirmar que el nivel social sea objetivo (en cuanto a su percepción por parte de los individuos) o común a muchos. Existen, como veremos, mecanismos que intervienen en la explicación de las conductas de corrupción que se relacionan con la influencia de las normas sociales. En tercer lugar, ejemplificaremos la transición de lo macro a lo micro a través de la noción de expectativas normativas, y estudiaremos los mecanismos que facilitan que los individuos perciban los comportamientos corruptos como legítimos. Específicamente, pasaremos revista a distintos mecanismos que están interrelacionados y que se refieren a: modos de transacción, disonancia cognitiva, narrativas e ignorancia pluralista.

https://doi.org/10.18270/rcfc.v19i39.2819
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